Rope Access English Manual

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From the rope access technology Association

Rope access techniques is originally improved and developed for Single Rope Techniques(SRT) that has been used to caving in Europe for the industry, and to travel along the rope, up, down and traverse: horizontal moving, safely, easily, quickly, and certainly.
Rope access techniques and SRT are different from rock climbing technique, and also use different equipment such as rope.
Rope access techniques and SRT are born in America and Europe through a business relationship, but seems to be very commonly used from the previous and recent years in Japan, and is utilized in different fields mainly the construction.
This is the first technical book written systematically in Japanese, and cannot assume the responsibility for any accident occurring during the use of rope access techniques.
Finally, this book will have been written based on the latest knowledge, however, these techniques are improving every day.
In addition, this book is understandable, as much as possible, but it is dangerous to use the rope access techniques relying only on this book explanation.
Make sure to acquire the knowledge, and experience from laden technician as well as receive adequate training.
We also hold a workshop in rope access technology Association. If you need more details, can either visit or website or contact us by phone.

Point! There are always unpredictable dangers and the risk cannot be zero.
It is extremely dangerous to practice SRT just by reading this book!

● This manual is to guide you through the rope access technology on the basis and the information and products of the time of writing. Since the product will often change the models, please be sure to carefully read the operating instruction of the manufacturer.
● In addition , there always is a danger that cannot be avoided when you use a rope and cannot assume the responsibility for any accident occurring during the use of rope access techniques.
● All brands and product names listed in this document , trademarks or registered trademarks , are the property of their respective corresponding owners. R, and TM is not stated in this document.
● Revenue of this document will be used for the development of rope access technology .

From the author

SRT is a key technique of the rope access, to move freely through vertical surface or in the air using a single rope. The rope technique itself has been established, and with the proper practice, it is possible to hanging rope safely.

Point! SRT is a technique to move freely on the vertical plane or in midair.
Rope technique has been established to be securing if is used properly.


But on the wall surfaces, especially on the natural rock wall, there are many hazards like destabilized rocks and fallen trees.
Your knowledge or skills can reduce the risk, however, it is impossible to eliminate it.
In addition, trivial mistakes, like make a mistake when tie a knot or assemble an anchoring system can lead to a death by fall.
Also, the rocks that you drop can cause the death or injury to your companions or unrelated persons.


Moreover, the continued use of the instrument can cause deterioration, fine cracks, or acid corrosion that is difficult to see, and can break the metals. So,even if the equipment look complete safe, should not be used for rope access. This book is created as a text for the single rope techniques training course. Is extremely important to receive the direct practical guidance from a skilled person, and is too dangerous as a beginner to try rope access only by reading this book.

1.Falling objects (falling rocks) and the danger zone regulation

Because rope access is carried out in a vertical position, there is a large possibility of accidents caused by falling objects.
Therefore the rope access user should not work in different levels on order to avoid be hited by falling objects.
Furthermore, a danger zone advice must be displayed in order to prevent other people(not related people) enter in the working area that is possible to be impacted by falling rocks.
If there is a case prevent them whth a loud voice.
When do rope access as a team, it is better to take close contact with a portable radio.

Entry ban principles.

● The upper area of the rope access user can be accessed by not related people and this can cause falling objects.
● The objects dropped by rope access user can reach the danger zone under the user.


● The members of the rope access team who need enter in the lower part in order to rescue a team member, or to make a complex rope arrangement, need alert the team before enter.
●If you need to enter upper rescuers are working do it only after obtain voice permission, and taking care do not generate falling objects.
●If there are falling objects and there is not any wall depression to hide in order to protect yourself, can try escaping by running aside.
●If you permit a team member enter upward during rope access, and that member Knows avoidance behavior (like pendulum traverse) in the case that caused falling objects.
●If there are a team member working lower during rope access, take care do not generate falling objects.

Point! Upper and lower work ban
Call out "rocks" when produce a falling rocks


Basically the equipment that have passed through the standards such as UIAA, CE, or EN can be used.


Long sleeves and long pants must be used.
Because the selected cloths can not be changed, it is important to select the appropriate cloths material to different weather.
Highly recommended to use chemical fiber underwear.
If necessary the combined use of a breathable windproof coat in the chemical fiber.

2.Harness (Safety belts)

Sit harness

The safety belts support the body weight in the hips and thighs.
Use a harness that is suitable for single rope technique.
In this course will use a lightweight up St. harness that is adequate to descend ans ascend whit a rope.
Although a little complicated, a sit harness for rock climbing can be used.

Chest harness

There are mainly two types. The torso type, and the chest Eight type. that offer support to the upper body through the neck, chest, and through the top hole of the chest ascend loaders.

●the torso type, not only offer support to neck and back also can be easy length adjusted.
●Since the chest eight type offer support across the armpit, offer a better sense of stability compared to torso type.

Chest harness for rock climbing is, reasonably a great support for the upper body, and easy to use.
Chest harness for work are mainly a torso type and contain a thick pad.
Although is suitable for a long period of time of rope work, in order to reduce the effort is not suitable if you want to lighten the effort to carry the equipment for the mountain site.


Chest harness for climbing

Chest harness for rock climbing is, reasonably a great support for the upper body, and easy to use.

Fall arrest harness

In the Fall arrest harness for work, the attachment point on the chest and back is arranged, designed to evenly distribute the impact at the time of a crash.
Includes a thick pad, and the width of the belt is wide, so is suitable for long rope work and free hanging.
Is heavy and bulky so is not suitable if you want to lighten the effort to carry the equipment for the mountain site.



According to the applications, must be select the presence or absence of the ventilation and absorbent material, also the compatibility with the head shape is important.
Since the long hair may be entangled with the rope, it should be trimmed or accommodated.


In general, a load-bearing grater or equal than 18KN static rope with a mantle structure growth rate less than 5% and 9mm-11mm of diameter.

Appearance of rope

Nylon is mainstream. Appearance often something white. Easy to understand when, according the use, change the color.

Internal structure of the rope

The structure of the rope. In the case of polyamide core, the coated is made with about ten bundles of approximately 3mm thickness woven. Hard to stretch features, is unlikely to kink or twist.
If you are sufficiently familiar with rope access and can reliably avoided rubbing rope, may be use an 8mm diameter alternative rope.


There are mainly two types as connector: carabiner type and the maillon type, the material mainly aluminum,(light) and steel( heavy and stronger compared to aluminum).
The shape and strength varies depending on the applications, and if is used rightly.


Classification by shape


Oval carabiner.
Symmetrical, it is suitable when you want to connect the top hole of a fix pulley and a hand ascender. It is the most versatile type.

Deformation D type

Left-right asymmetry. It is easy to clip.
Thanks to the shape, the width of the gate is large and offer more strength. because offer more strength, this carabiner type is specializes in weight. It Is often used in rock climbing.

HMS type

Left-right asymmetry in a pear type . Gate side is wide and is suitable for example when want to use an Italian hitch or ATC. Also is adequate for a fix pulley and hand ascender top hole connection.

Delta type

Symmetric, small triangle. Suitable when need to shorten distances between weight and connections.

Demirond type

Semi-circular carabiner. It is used in the ASCENT harness as a main attachment.


From the left, a pulley incorporated carabiner(Revolver by DMM), and additional bar for breaking attached(Freino by PETZL), also those whth a built-in swivel(Swiva Biner by Rock Exotica). When Revolver is allowed to a hand ascennder, a Z rig(3 time force) can be built immediately.

Classification by type of safety keylock

No ring

Type there is no safety ring. Easy to clip, frequently opened and closed in a required location. Used at a tip of the cows tail, also at a tip of a deviation..

Screw lock

In order to close the gate, need to turn around the tube manually. Used in site, to prevent open the gate by mistake.
Mainly used in rigging such as construction of the fulcrum and a re-belay.

Auto lock

A charged spring tube covering the gate, automatically close when you release your finger from the gate release state.

Tri-act lock

Turn around the prevention safety keylock and one more action to auto lock.
Once are placed in the required place like the harness or the main attachment. It is rarely re-opened the secure lock. Easily handle when you hold the carabiner with the ring finger.


Speedy type

The gate is opened and closed by about 3 or 4 rotations, and then slide to open completely.
The installation and dismantlement can be carried out quickly.
Made in aluminum or steel.

Rapid type

The gate part is completely screw, and is necessary rotate to open and close the gate.

3.Combination by shape and elements

Although the aluminum tools are often used, there are some made in iron(steel) or stainless steel. There is no problem when connect the aluminum ones to each other, but need to be careful to connect those made in iron or steel.

Case you use the stainless steel hanger

The stainless steel hanger is used to connect with the steel materials.
When you charge a load using an aluminum connector the difference in hardness can shaved the aluminum side.

Case you connect a pulley or a top hole of the hand ascender

If you want to connect a wide pulley like a fix pulley, or a top hole of a hand ascender, use the HMS type or an oval carabiner. If the connected holes in the parallel plates are not symmetrical, the load is not applied evenly in the two plates.


Ascender (climbing device)

Gear which can pinch the rope and bite in the outer skin in order to fix the rope. The Shape is different depending on the application.
Used mainly when climb ropes or lift a load.

Basic ascender

Cam with a fixed direction of the rope surface biting spike and can be locked in any place on the rope. In a basic form, very versatile use for climbing and or halling.
Around 600kg, cam can be scratch or eat the rope skin during the use. Therefore cannot be used as a Tyrolean bridge main device of which stretched using a boost.

Chest ascender

Ascender specialized as an chest attachment.
The plate part have a minimum size to facilitate the rope installation . Angling the bottom hole, the chest ascender is designed to be parallel to body.
The endurance is the same to the Basic.

Hand ascender

Ascender specializesd to be used grabbed by hand.
A basic ascender with a handle. Used in combination with foot loop. Can be used with one hand.
The endurance is the same to the Basic.

Foot ascender

Ascender specialized as an ankle attachment. Auxiliary ascender.
Even if not an essential equipment, easy to climb when you get how to use. Only an auxiliary gear and should not be taken as a self securing device.

Gibbs system clamp

Clamp type ascender, has no spike and have an excellent grip for ropes covered with mud and ice.
The rope installation is complicated.
Around 900kg, can scratch or eat the rope skin during the use.


A climb instrument like a metal bar sandwich to press the rope when a load is attached.
The installation and de-installation of the rope is complicated and the response when a load is attached is slow. In combination with the ATC, it can be an auto-stop function. Can be used both in double and in single rope like ATC.
When use a double rope, be careful not to use a different diameter ropes. A thicker rope can be locked easily but a thinner rope can slip out.


There are various descender types. It is possible to create friction between ropes and metal equipment to control the lowering speed.


The double bobbin descender for a single rope, doesn't have an auto stop function. Often used in combination with an additional braking carabiner like a Freino.


A double bobbin descender for a single rope with an auto-stop function. Also corresponds to the downward rope movement taking the tension on rescue, providing high versatility
As the hole in the front plate is clip-on style, the rope can be attached without remove the descender from the carabiner .


Descender with a single bobbin developed for work solutions.
It can be hard-locked with a operation lever only.
As the hole in the front plate is clip-on style, the rope can be attached without remove the descender from the carabiner .
In the case of using thin rope or wared down bobbin, it is possible to to create to create a hard-lock like Stop.


The structure is the same as the rig, but have a safety device to prevent an operation mistake and a panic prevention function attached. Help to prevent a rookie mistake, but inconvenient to do an emergency escape such as when it was attacked by wasp. (See the expected risk and measures in 12)
As the hole in the front plate is clip-on style, the rope can be attached without remove the descender from the carabiner .


Single bobbin descender developed for work solutions like Rig.
The built-in brake adiccional bar, fill the line (the rope passes over the same plane without kink) .
A pannic prevention funtion when the lever is fully open. As the hole in the front plate is clip-on style, the rope can be attached without remove the descender from the carabiner .


Single bobbin device for descending and secureing. Frequently used for free climbing. With auto stop funccion, can be used for rope access.
The lightest of the auto-stop descenders. Less gradient, less response of the auto stop.
Need to remove the device from the carabiner to install the rope.


Combined with a carabiner, used as a descender or securer.
There is not an auto stop funcion but used in combination with a Shunt or a prusik knot, can make auto stop.
Can be used with double rope.

Eight ring

8 shaped secure intrument traditionaly used. Because of a vent friction type(rope passes right through and around)making a rope kink, not used in rope access.

Rack descender

Descenders brake bar type to obtain a braking force by passing alternately a rope to a parallel bars .
Because it is complicate to make a hard-lock and the alpine type instalation and deinstalation of the rope (rigging style to avoid any edge in the middle of the device) is unsuitable for rope access.
Have an excellent heat dissipation, through a long pitch-down. Can be used both single and double rope. Add or decrease the braking force is possible during having tension.

A different types and a different lengths of rope are needed depends on the type of descender. To use descender, it is essential to make a hard-lock(making a secure stop state to release the hands of the rope.) The required length of the rope,it is not only to attach the descender, but also to make a hard-lock. As the required length of slack in the rope vary depending of the descender, in the case in shareing a single rigging route with more persons, everybody needs to use the same type of descender.

8.Cows tail

Double asymetic lanyard designed to help pass rebelays. Used to self secure at the time of ascension with a hand ascender, and when pass rebelays.
Progress and Spelegyca of PETZL are equivalent products.

Use always in combination with a reversal prevention rubber (captive)!

In order not to be used inverted the carabiners would always attach captive:inversion preventing rubber (not required for barrel knots).
If not use a captive, the cows tail permit the carabiner to move freely. There is a possibility to a cows tail enter in contact with the carabiner gate and accidentaly open the carabiner when a tension is applied.

Can also be self made

Acceptable to make by hand a dynamic rope thicker than 9mm. Double figure eigth knots or barrel knots, in the extremes and an overhand knot or an alpine butterfly knot to intermediate.

9.Cows Tail II

The third of the lanyards will be used to build and move on through the traverse line.
Can be made about the length of the stretched arms with a dynamic rope.
An double eigth knot, a barrel knot, or an overhand knot to attach the carabiners.

Or one extreme can be used as adjustable lanyard with a descender.

10.Foot loop

A Loop to connect the hand ascender to kick up.
The end have an over loop to put the foot in, and is possible to adjust the length.
There are a tape type and rope type.


Stirrups (Eider) generally have 4 or 5 steps in a cord, made in tape or metal plates.
Those tape made are not confotrtables to stand up but can be stored easily.
Metal plate material is bulky, but it is suitable for long-term Standing inclusive work .
Used to move in traverse in rope access.


A wide fiber sewn tape mainly in 10mm~30mm width.
Can be tied with a water knot to assist making rigging.

13.Sawn sling

A tape product stitched in a ring shape.
Can support a charge about 22KN(see especifications).
Very convenient and frequently used but, need to be used with caution.

14.Daisy Chain

A sling stitched in various points to make a chain, which made the load can be attached in any point.
Even sawn sling resists 22Kn, each poket resists about 300kg.
Tie to a natural anchor with a Garth Hitch.

Different material have different break points!

Do not connect daisy chain of differnt materials (Example: such a Nylon and Dyneema).
Stretch different materials can be blown by fricction when a load is applied. Use a carabiner to connect a different material daisy chain.

Broken if connect with a girth hitch

Don't tie with a girth hitch.
Tie with an square knot or a carabiner to connect.


Circular cross section rope with an mantle structure about 5mm~8mm diameter.
Can be used auxiliary for rigging.
Those made of Kevlar and Dyneema, are also those with the same intensity with the main rope.
The sewing of the union dont change the intensity even in a sling type.

The sewing products

The sawing products are convenient well fits.

Tied with a fishermans knot

Can make a sling with a fishermans knot. Cheap.


A rope protect device made with a high resistant fibbers such as PVC.

Carry with the required equipment for instalation

Carry together with a 3mm diameter cord and a small carabiner for install the protector in the rope.


Used to make a change in the pulling direction and the boost system.

Fixe type

The body plates are fixed.
In combination with an ascender, possible to construct a cam pulley or a Z rig.

Swing slide type

Both sides of the plate can be rotated in the pulley axis and a rope can be attached. Have a great efficiency to pull.
There are some with two bobbins placed coaxially to higher boost reduction.

With a little logic a Plusik can be added to reducce the pull effect and construct a cam pulley using a cord.

In combination with an ascender, possible to construct a leveler pulley or a Z rig.

Tandem pulley

Mainly to use when pass through a Tirolean bridge, and placed parallel to the bobbin in order to stabilize the pulley direction.

18.pulley cam

A Pulley with a cam integrated. Used mainly to halling and rescue, also when move in a Tirolean bridge.
Should not to be used to stretch ropes.
Can be used as a pulley only, or as a cam only.

19.Rigging plate

A strength metal plate or cube with various attachment points.
Mainly used to hall a load or in rescue.
In case of carrying a large number of tools, convinient to distribute the luggage in a small rigging plate in the lower side of the attachment point.

20.Rope bag

A Bag for rope transportartion made of smooth water resistant fibbers , such as PVC.
As been designed as much as possible to not to be jammed and to carry the rope in small spacescomfortably.


Hanging chair to assist in the long time suspension.
Connected to the harness main atachment with a adjustable buckle in both sides.

22.Artificial anchor

A metal piece for fixing, to insert, etc. in a drilled rock.
Used as the fulcrum of the rope.
Fixed by phisically dilatation (expansion type) can also be fixed with an adhesive(chemical type).
In general, there is more resistance in the chemical type, but take a long time to the adhesive curing.
The expansion type is more "ready to use" as allowed to settle.
The expansion type is an industrial anchor tip and self drilling type to be fixed with a mounting wedge after drilling. and also are some with the wedge pre installed.
The required drilling tools are separately whern use an indusytrial anchor.
In this course, we will see the form to connect an expansion anchor and a hanger using M8 bolts.


A metal plate to be connected to an anchor bolts in order to bond a carabiner and rope(possible to combine the cords).
Hanger for fastening to the anchor M8 bolts using a 13mm wrench.
When fasten the hanger to the anchor and tighten excessively the resultant stress pass to the anchor bolts and as a result the fulcrum strenght is reduced. therefore most of the strength as a inclusive measure is obtained when is closed, the interference start( the point when the rotation of the bolt begins to take resistance) is from rotated 100 degrees, to the conclusion completed.


Although the direcction of the load is basically not aceptable only in the anchor axis and vertically, somehow until the extension of the empirically back part is OK.
Use a carabiner to connect the hannger and the rope and shall not be connected the rope directly.


The direcction for the load is basically permited only in the anchor axis direcction and perpendicular to the bolt.
The knot (rope knot) can be far from the wall by a carabiner.
use a carabiner to connect the rope to the hanger and shall not be connected directly.


Regardless the anchor axis, it is possible to load in any direction.
Use a knot to connect the rope directly to the hanger.
Is not possible to adjust the length of thr rope after the anchor attached.
There are more separation from the wall.
The producction of this type are discontinued.

Double hole

A twisted stainless hanger.
To be usewd with a steel maillon, or a carabiner.
The top hole is located directly above the bolt and can be loaded in any direction in the twisted plate surface (the one with the holes).
The bottom hole allow the load only in the anchor axis and verticaly.
Should not be connected with the rope directly

Ring hanger

A steel hanger ring with a bolt.
It is possible to load in any direction on the ring plane but never over load out of the ring plane.
Since a hammer tail wrench can not be used, a common wrench is needed.

AS flexible hanger

Used in combination with a 6mm diametre dyneema cord.
It is possible to load the cord in any direcction.
By building an square knot to tie the main rope, can omit the carabiner.
In the edges of the Dyneema cord and the plate, the abrasion can bruise the cord fastly. Need maintenance if used continuously.
Accept to use a carabiner.


Used to set the anchor.
Because an strong striking force is obtained, can be operated well with a small wrist effort.
The ones with a pick and wrench attached are a good choise.

25.Hammer drill

Used to drill for install an anchor.
If the place to hit are numerous, it ismore effective to use hammer drill when the rock is hard.
The lightest one with a batettery-power has 1.8kg.


Used to drilling with the anchor set.
If the number of setting anchor is large, it is better to fix the jumping over the biceps, with an adjustable buckle.
The self drilling type anchor is for soft rock(concrete, limestone, sandrock, etc.), because the teeth of the anchor will not drill a hard rock.( chart, plutonic rocks, lava, etc). When hit the self drilling type anchor with a hammer, the tail will continue to gradually drilled.


Perfo SPE

Attachment for the self drilling type anchor (PETZL's SPIT) so the anchor can easily drilled and fixed.
Can also be used to extend the grip anchors.

Rock Pecker

The anchor tip can be replaced for a drill bit and M8 bolts to become SDS shank.
Drilling with a drill bit is also possible for the self drilling type anchor(PETZLs SPIT) or for the industrial anchor.


Preferable those with a compact ratched function.
Recomendable to hung in the upper arm with the jumping when used a multiples hanger becouse it will be needed for remove each hanger.



For be used when a rope rescue has been triggered, and the rescuer need to cut the rope to escape.
The knife with a hole can be set with a carabiner.
Be sure to carry at all times.

3.Maintenance and management

You need to firmly aware that you, your fellows and the life of the rescuer depend on the tools, a perfect management is mandatory.
Be carefully transfer and the lending tools. It does not matter if you can trust in the person who has used the tools, it is your responsability to confirm the state and trace of the tools, otherwise should not be used.
(How you can deposite a life in a gear you dont know how treated in the past? Can be a dropped carabiner.. Never buy carabiners (or any tool) in an internet auctions!)

1.metal equipment

●without damage, has a semipermanet life.
●Metal equipment which has been dropped need to be discarded (because in a fall, the impact could damage the metal and the damages can not be confirmed visually).
●When the wear progress, sooner is better to get a new equipment.
●When an abraded rope enter in contact with a descender or fureino, the wear is concentrated in the bottom hole and near de chest ascender cam.
●For clean up the movable parts, pour lubricants (ex. WD40 of S.T.corperation) which does not erode the chemical fiber after washing and drying it.

Recomended Oil

A typical lubrication spray for example CRC5-56(industrial type) alter the nylon, should not to be used. As WD-40(S.T. cprperation) does not alter the Nylon. it is the recomended to use it.


The wear of the descender, rope or abrased parts of Freino, the bottom hole and near de chest ascender cam can be wore concentrately.


2.Fiber made equipment

●The chemical fiber are extremely vulnerable to heat, acid and ultraviolet rays.
●Because it is difficult to confirm the corrosion caused by acid, stored with certain equipment such a batteries must be avoided. It is reported that a rope corrosioned by sulfuric acid has expired by a single person body weight.
●Those that not be in use, must not be leaving or stored outdoors, or exposed to direct sunlight.
●Because the Nylon material and textile equipment in general, have a low melting point, must be aware of the heat generated in the descenders. The rope surface melt at the friccional heat generated when create too much friction in a short time lapse (Spend more than two seconds to fall one meter).
●The chemical fiber strength is reduced in accordance with the time has passed from the manufacturing. Without using in five years from the manufacturing, it is said the strenght is reduced by half and it is preferable to discard even in five years without damage.
●If the damage caused by use fit the extent, also discarded even within five years.
●If a phisical damage has occurred(fuzz), then cut the damaged part and use the rest as a separate rope (About a 10% of the cross section as damaged then cut).
● Wash promptly if it is dirty .
●The sand, mud mineral particles, the wear of the descender and the reuse make a rope to dirty faster. In addition, the rope becomes harder for the lose of suppleness and it is more difficlut to tie the knots.

How to wash

●Use neutral detergent when wash the rope. Also wash gently in a basin or in a drum type washing machine.
Vertical blades spinning washing machine are prohibited.
●Rinse well until the foam disappears. Replace the water several times
●Use softener. Dried in the shade, must not place in to the direct sunlight.
● Store in a well-ventilated cool, and dark place .


1.General mounting of rope access personal equipment.

1.Wear a helmet

Long hair must be in a helmet. Always keep in a range away of the descenders. (When use a descender there is a risk of the part of the hair can be suctioned and wraps around the descender. Hairless is recommended.)

The long hair problem

When the hair is caught in the descender, the hair will be pulled by the body weight. Because it is not able to pull a load, there is no choice but cut.

2.Wear a sit harness

Viewed from the user, in the main attachment carabiner, from the right, the chest ascender, cows tail, will be mounted in this order.

3.Wear a chest harness

It is bounded through the neck and shoulders, one side by side using the top hole of the chest ascender, and it is fixed to dispose the chest ascender to the body.

4.Take a hand ascender

Connect a foot loop to a hand ascender using a maillon "Speedy". While it is not in use, the foot loop will be folded short over the carabiner connected to Speedy and keep in the gear rack.
If you use the Revolver, a carabiner built in pulley(made by DMM), three times force can be build immediately.


5.Connect the descenders

Descender with a auto-stop function(stop, rig, muzzles, etc) will be connected to the main attachment with a carabiner.
Viewed as the user chest, from the right, the assender, loader, cows tail, and the descender connected most to the left.

6.Wear a backup equipment

Usually can be used but, is better to not use in rescue in the case of a lack of gears occurs, pulley(preferably those can be load with 1800Kn made of Dyneema, or kevlar) preliminaru cord af a 4meters length in about 6mm of diameter.


7.Other equipment

Although is not always necessary, and to be easily install and uninstall, ther is a foot ascender, there is an small cam pulley with high versatility, such as a preliminary ascender.
Also, if an small riggin plate is attached below the main attachment, it is more easily to keep hanging by distributing the load of the own equipment.



2.Consolidates of the carabiner prohibitions

When connect descenders and ascenders, cows tail like, to the harness (rigging time as well) basically will not be connected with carabiners. The carabiners connected twistedly have a possibility of forcibly open the gate.

Using a carabiner if you are connecting the descender to the harness ( if the main attachment of the harness shall be connected by a semicircular demirond carabiner) and other works solutions harness (or when the main attachment ring are sewn).
Although this case is unavoidable ,is preferable if the carabiner of the ascender is small as much as possible. Those like an large diameter HMS can be deviated and twisted easily. Emphatically that you will use a safety ring with the carabiner.
When connected with carabiners out of necessity, look closely is not twisted in the time of the load, and watch the state of the carabiner when re-load, and dont release the eye until the accion is completed.

5.Basic vertical movement

1.How to use a descenders

There are numerous gears to lower the rope and also has a various features.
The rope access, in line type kink (kink) does not attach to the rope, and also a down device with an auto-stop function is required.
In this course we will use a PETZL made STOP, and RIG.

①Both, long and short cows tail fixed to the startin descent point (carabiner, slack, loop) to take a secure connection.


②Connect the descender to the main attchment and pass the rope on the device opening the front plate.
If the device is a RIG move the lever to the belay mode (do not attach the rope when the gear rack is closed).


③Put the descender in hard lock.
If the device is an STOP, make a hard lock by winding the rope. If the device is a RIG, move the lever to the hard lock mode.


④Gradually transfer the body weight to the descender, If there is no problem when the body weight is transfered to the descender, remove cmpletely the short cows tail (There is not brake down on the device or the carabiner was confirmed normally).


⑤Grip firmly the lower side of the rope and try to descend only a few centimeters releasing the hard lock.
Do a hard lock again, and completely remove the long cows tail(the rope pass normally on the device was confirmed).


⑥Grip firmly the lower side fo the rope again, and start to descend releasing the hard lock.
should not release the hand from the lower side of the rope without do a hard lock.


⑦If there is a need to release the hand from the rope in the middle of the descend. be sure to do a hard lock in each case.



● If you release the hand from the descender lever, without hold the lower side of the rope (in a descend) then you are in an non-braking state.
● When the descending speed is too fast, a high heat is genereted by the friction of the rope and the descender device bobbin, which may melt the outer skin of the rope (multiplying about 2 seconds to descend 1 meter).
●The braking force obtained by the abrasion is greatly different when the rope is wet or dry, new or old, an by the thickness of the rope. If the braking force seems to be insufficient, can connect a carabiner next to the descender in the main attachment to obtain an additional braking force. Some carabiner Like fureino features a bar for adding braking force.

2.How to use a ascender device

There are several rope-climb style using an ascender instrument, mainly for the frog system used in caving in europe. gibbs rope walk system used in caving in the United Estates or texas system such is widely know to be used in alpine climbing.
In this book, we will adopt the frog system because is more suitable to stay and move verticaly in the air using a rope.
Therefore lets adopt an ascender gear device with a lever(such as PETZL 's ascension)and a ascender unit for chest(such as PETZL 's crawl ).
Also those that added the foot auxiliary ascender in the frog system, called the frog walk system. This will permit us to select a triplicate ascender method to suit the strenght, very convenient.

1.Frog system

①Using a speedy maillon connect the foot loop to the smaller bottom hole of the hand ascender.


②When standing, open the chest ascender cam, pass the rope through the device and close the cam.


③Pull down the rope under the chest ascender repeatedly until take tension, and strech several times.

④Connect the long cows tail to the bottom hole of the hand ascender and open the ascender cam loader, pass the chest ascender upper side rope through the hand ascender loader and close the cam.


⑤Push the hand asecnder thrugh the rope until the long cows tail strech the max.

⑥Stand up and put your foot on the foot loop .

⑦If the rope between the hand ascender and the chest ascender is slack, pull down the rope under the chest ascender.


⑧Put the body weight on the chest ascender, and repeat from ⑤.



Since the rope weight in the ascend start time is low, the rope does not flow smoothly in the chest ascender, here are some tricks.

①Press the chest ascender lower side rope with the foot loop and your foot, to pull down the rope when ascend.

②Pass the rope through the legs and scissors the rope when stand. Push up the hand ascender, then put the body weight in to chest ascender and scissor the rope between the legs and stand again.

③Put the rope between the feet when are in a sit position, then stand, push up the hand ascender and up the feets to press the rope again and repeat the action.

④If the rope bag weigh is loaded to the lower end of the rope, the rope stand in a vertical position and flows smoothly through the chest ascender during the ascend.

2.The frog walk system

The frog walk system embrace three ways (basic step, asymetric step, and symetric step) to climb. Can performance a high speed but the physical strenght required is proporcional.

Basic step

As well as the Frog system, is a sit, and stand climb behavior Adding a foot ascender and since the left and right feet kick out in a different direction, it is possible to climb stably.

Asymmetric step

Lift the body only with the effort of the foot loop. Standing using the foot ascender not with the propous of lift the body but to keep lifting the hand ascender.

Symmetric step

Lift the body usin the foot loop and the foot ascender behavior. When the slop of the wall, is 70~80 degrees an unbeatable speed comes when the toe touches the wall.

Ascending training

Establish a pulley in a constant height(if is possible several meters) and pass trough one end of the longest rope possible. Fold the rest of the rope in order to pass easily through the pulley. Attach the end of the rope in a descender to slow down the rope speed and keep the training in the same height. This allow us to train along the entire lenght of the rope. This is a traditional training method.
Since the pulley will be loaded with two persons weight, select a sufficiently robust point for the pulley.
There is a posibility to anchor point to fall by the persons weight, then do an double anchor rigging.

6.Rigging install overview

To bind the rope to a supporting point, so the rope do not enter in contact any other place, but when the contact is unavoidable, the rig will be arranged to safely lift by protecting the rope.

1.Pitch head


The rope access in order to enter safely in a vertical places and start to use the rope from a safe point.
Is a call to use the descender from the beginnig of the anchor before pass to the pitch head point.(start using the rope) and onter to the pitch head point only after place the cows tails in the guidelines.
Set the pitch head in a place to permit the comunication between the rigging person and other members of the time.
Essentially when start to descend should be use of the descender device becouse theres always a possibility to fall. Therefore, securing the cows tail move(to the guidelines) is limited to the slopes with no possibility to fall.

Pattern 1

●Stable part( the anchor 1 and 2) are tied by a classical Y belay, and all the three points of the shared anchor system using again a classical Y belay as an pitch head(anchor 3).
●If you follow(descend in the instaled rigging base)then, from the rope in the space between the anchor 1 and anchor 3 becomes a guideline and enter in the pitch head(anchor 3) secured by the cows tail to the rope.

Pattern 2

●2 points chared anchor system tied in a stable place(anchor 1 and 2) in a classical Y belay.
●The edge part is avoided by a deviation.
●If you want to continue ( descend from the installation has been rigging)the rope before the anchor 2 becomes a guideline and the anchore 2 in a pitch head so enter taking secure of the cows tail to the rope.

Descend passing

①Connect the cows tail to the guideline and start to move to the descend starting point.
②Setting both cows tail on the main anchor. In that time , the cows tail are replaced one by one taking kare to not remove the two simultaneously.
③Be carefull to not connect the cows tail in a place lower than the own main attachment.((the cows tail carabiner) During the slipping, if the falling coefficient is more than one there is a possibiliti that the result of the fall is serious damage to the body.
④The short cow stail is connected to the pitch head carabiner, when you connec the long cows tail to the pitch head knot, then, you are completely connected to the pitch head.


Elevated pass

①Once you have climbed to the main anchor highest point, connect the short cows to a traverse line or to the guide line.
②Remove the long cows tail from the hand ascender and connect to the traverse line ore to the guide line.

③Remove the chest ascender and the hand ascender.
④First keeping the self assured state to the fulcrum until assure the rest of the equipment (use the beginning point of the rope).

2.Re belay


When descending, if the rope scratch an edge, and to obtain a new fulcrum in a middle of the pitch, are called a re-belay to re placed a load.
Take the tension from the rubbing rope, and transferring to the re-belay fulcrum to avoid the damage to the rope.

Pattern 1

●Re-belay using an artificial anchor.
●Transferring the load to another fulcrum placed to avoid the scraping point, remove the loaded rope to the abraded areas to avoid damage to the rope.

Pattern 2

●Re-belay using a natural anchor.
●Transferring the load to another fulcrum placed to avoid the scraping point, remove the loaded rope to the abraded areas to avoid damage to the rope.

Descent pass

①Place the descender in a hard lock mode when came down to the same height as the re-belay carabiner to connect the Cows tail to the re-belay carabiner.

②Connect the long cows tail in the loop of the eight knot re-belay.

③Release the hard lock and descend until the tension is transferred to the short cows tail.

④Remove the descender from the rope and do a hard lock in the rope under the re-belay.

⑤On site, to stand up in order to remove the short cows tail, if there are an scaffolding can use it to stand, if there are not, then use the foot loop to stand and release the carabiner.

⑥Slowly sit back and transfer the weight to the descender.

⑦Firmly grip the braking side of the rope, and try to descend only a few centimeters releasing the hard lock.
Do a hard lock again and remove the long cows tail.
⑧Firmly grip the braking side of the rope again and resumes to descend releasing the hard lock.

Elevated pass

①Do re-belay once you have climbed to the nearest place to connect the short cows tail to the re-belay carabiner and stand in the foot loop.

②Remove the chest ascender while stand in the foot loop and attached to the rope on the re-belay.

③Transfer the hand ascender to the upper side of the chest ascender, because to remove the load from the short cows tail need to stand in the foot loop.


●There is a risk of trap your own fingers whit the cows tail carabiner when do a re-belay.
●The short cows tail may be hard to reach, but this can be solved by adjusting the length of the foot loop.



A way to avoid rub the rope in a scratching edge by lifting the rope on the opposite side (of the edge).
Deviation, unlike the re-belay, the rope is only passing through the carabiner, without tied. The fulcrum of the deviation is in the opposite side wall of the abrasion place or, from a tree overhanging the abrasion place. The carabiner is attached in a appropriate position by a sling stretched from the deviation fulcrum, and the rope is passed through it.
When passing, remove the main rope from the deviation carabiner, and place it again after passing through.

Deviation example of a pattern 1 mountain slope

To lift the rope rubbing part from the opposite side to prevent the rope be damaged by a edge.

Deviation example of a pattern 2 structures

To lift the rope rubbing part from the opposite side to prevent the rope be damaged by a edge.

Descend pass

Elevated pass

4.Rope protector


If the abrasion place can not be avoided by re-belay or a deviation, then, can be winding a protective material on the place the rope is rubbing to prevent abrasion to the rope.
Remove the protector every time pass through and winding again once pass.


To prevent abrasion on the rope in a scraping edge, cover the rope with a protective material(protector).

5.Rope joint


If the length of the rope is not enough to reach the goal and another rope need to be tied by a knot(rope joint).


Rope joint schematic diagram. Passing the rope joint. the resting rope(the rope after the knot) is tied by spliced rope.

6.Bolt traverse


In addition not only vertically or in the air can be moved using a rope, (Volt Traverse) can displaced in a horizontal direction by creating an artificial scaffolds with the stapes.
When do a bolt traverse the self assure is frequently changed, so take sure to always be self assured by two or more point.


The vertical walls and the ceiling surface without scaffolds, move horizontally while transfer the body weight on a continued anchor system.


Because the two points self secure rule can not be protected all the time when do a bolt traverse, add a third point in to a lanyard. If you have an extra long cows tail made in a dynamic rope can be connected to the main attachment If not, can be made taking a length of about the tip of the extended arm in a lanyard, also is connected to the main attachment. The length is adjustable by using a descender and have to tie the both ends, Long Cows tail II


In the case of absolutely no vertical walls and any scaffolding, it is necessary to make artificially scaffolds to stirrup.
One is to use as a foot loop connected to the hand ascender, and the other one is used like a stirrup. If not, can use a fabricated sling like.
And to know in advance that there is a bolt traverse rigging route, to bring the stirrup and the long Cows tail II.


During the rigging pass, the equipment the user is wearing(hand ascender, chest ascender, long cows tail, short cows tail, descender) will be used to take two points of self assurement. During a descend an only one point shall be accepted as an exeption when use a descender.
When need to remove one point in order to brake the two secure points pace do-it only after to secure the third point before the first point.
The foot ascender should not be counted to ensure. is an auxiliary ascender.

7.Other techniques of ascend - descent

Down a short distance in a middle of an ascend.

Switching to ascend in a middle of descend

Switching to descend in a middle of an ascend

Descend in a ascend (Prussic down)

Fall factor

The fall factor can be translated as a falling coefficient. From the point at the rope is fixed and the crash distance is a measure of the impact is estimated the body can suffer. The fall factor is calculated by dividing the distance to crash and the length of the rope necessary to stop the crash.

Fall Factor=length of the rope to stop the crash ÷ crash

Fall factor is a value of 0-2.
Indicates a greater effect on the body as a fall factor value increases . Because the rope will deform if is stretched while absorb the impact of the crash, if the length of the rope to stop the crash is long the impact in the body is less.

Even in a crash, for example, 10m, and if was stoped with a 20m rope, the fall factor (10m/20m=)minimize the impact on the human body to 0.5


Conversely 2m only fall factor if was stoped whit a 1m length rope without crashing(2m/1m=)becomes 2 , the body will consume a large burden and can damage the spinal cord.


Fall factor is a guide to understand the posibility of the damage in the body as a number, from one to more.
Therefore, should not enter in a area where their attachment point is higer than the fulcrum (fall factor is 1 or more). Also are not to be counted when rigging.
In that case, the pitch head of a traverse line and the cows tail ensure a low position.

If there are an area when the fall factor of 1 is unavoidable strive to position the body to take a pendulum movement if there is an accident as much as possible.
Even if the fall factor is 1, since is the same motion as the rigging, swing in a pendulum will do an small impact to the body.
If there is a slop-wall with a possibility of slip than climb upward, then the climb techniques must be used.


A person spot in a vertical plane situation do a Call with the purpose of alert.
In addition, more than one person in the same rigging have the purpose to inform about the actions they will do or are needed to do.

7.Rope knot (Knot)

The rope access use mainly fifteen konts.
To use for and specific purpouse, and can be combined, such as the information below shown how to do.
In addition , when make a knot, about 30% fo the rope strength is lost.
Also, even there are not problem to load a rope used by one person. A simple strengh calculation is needed in order to load multiple people in a rope, by creating a stretched line, such a tyrolean bridge.

1.Eight Knot (eight shape knot)

Is the basic knot in rope access.
this knot by itself is not heavy, but various modifications can be permormed and are frequently used.

2.Double figure eight knot

Mainly used to connect to the anchor carabiner.
have a large relative strength.

3.Rabbit knot

A variant of a double figure eight knot, it is possible to make two loops that can be connected.
Knot to connect whit the anchor carabiner close to two points, making a Y shape.
Strength is relatively large, but the length of the rope needed to do the knot is large.

4.Boleyn (bowline knot)

Used when bundling a rope whit a natural anchor and an ink knot is tied in the end of the rope.
The lenght of the rope needed to tied the knot is short, easy to untie after the load.
Because it is possible to put a load in the ring (Load in the direction of widening the circle made of the knot) should not do a selfbelay making tension in thewheel of the bowline.
Finally check for deformations in the boleyn.

5.Bowline on a Bight

1.To unite the rope in an end point

To tie the rope and a natural anchor divided in two points directly whth the rope, can be linked by a Y type and also omit the use of auxiliary eqyuipment such a carabiner or sling. or the excessive uneven distribution, needed to be shifted to the balance side.

2.To unite the rope in a middle point

The anchor carabiner close to two points if the rope are connected by a Y shaped , or when need to keep the rope consumption less than used in rabbit knots, for example, if will gona do a re-belay by unity the rope directly to the ring hanger.

6.Alpine butterfly

Knots for make a Y shaped load distribution in a middle of the rope (classical Y belay).

7.Ink knots (Tokkuri knot , clove hitch , mast knots)

Used to binding to the natural anchor together with the Boylenwhen start using the rope, also in the middle rope is frequently used as a temporary fixed knots trough the carabiner.

1.If need to make a union in the end part of the rope

Make an union by woven and wound the rope around a natural anchor.

If the friction in the sorface of the anchor is not enough to fix the rope, can obtain more frictional force to increase the number of windings.

2.If need to make an union in a middle of the rope

Overlap the twisted rope twice and make an union via carabiner.
Is very usefull to temporarily fix the rope bag, etc. to the rope.
And be carefull to not mistake whit the Italian hitch, because is very similar.

8.Italian hitch (half clove hitch, half mask knots)

This knot is capable of braking the rope.
Can be used as a descender in a emergency or when the descender is lost. or in a rescue When there is not enough descenders and a large number are necessary.
Take care to not mistake whit the ink knots because is very similar.

9.Triple eight knot

Used to make an union(joint) of two ropes.
Make a double figure eight knot above the bottom of the rope , pass the new rope through the knot following the knot from the lower side.

Rigging by the two points rule, need to add a knot, then make a double fishermans knot at the end of each triple eight knot ropes.

10.Double fishermans knot (barrel knots)

Ropes, cords, like as used in a cross section of the straight line united by a tied loop.
Some times used to create a rope sling, and also as a back up knot when make a rope joint.
It is very difficult to solve the tension when the knot is tighted.

11.Barrel knot

The barrel knot refers to the knot in two ways.
One is the alias of the double fishermans knot, and the other refers to the double fishermans knot tied to the connector.
Refered to an unique barrel knot.
Used to make a cows tail with a dynamic rope.


Typical friction type knot what can be tied in and arraund the user rope.
Basically use a cord loop of smaller dianmeter than the main rope. Can increase or decrease the friction by the numbers of wounds.
Can be used in an emergency or when the main ascender is loss, to fix the protector to the rope, or like an stretched tyrolean bridge.
Can load about 1200Kg in a prusik of 8mm. cord.

13.Blakes Hitch

Similar to the prusik its a friction hitch type.
Unlike the prusik it is possible to slide and pull the knot if a tension is applied.
Can be used in an emergency descend to add braking functions making a foot loop.

14.Tape bend (water knots)

Knot for tie together the extremes of a tape.
Is recomendable to tie the tape following (along) the weavings. In certain locations if the knot are loaded, there are a risk of the tape to melt.
The knot need to be located where dont be caught completely or be backed by doing an extra knot.

15.Girth Hitch

Used frequently to tying looped sling tape, or daisy chain to a natural anchor.
When is tied folded, the total strength will be lost (60% or more).
Is not recomended to connect two diferent materials tapes using this knot, and heep the square knots rather than Girth Hitch.

16.Tensionless hitch

When connect the final extrem of the rope to a natural anchor, and particulary used to determinate the rope strength.
It is possible to derive the intensity with almost no loss rope.
Used in the stretched lines of an anchore, like tyrolean bridge.

8.Rigging (Union and arrangement of the rope)

1.Preparations in advance

1.Rope check

Point! Look for damages in the rope before use and the same time put it in the rope bag.
Make sure tie a knot in the end of the rope.

①Tie a double figure eight knot in the end of the rope, and put in the rope bag.

②Look visually and by touch for fray in the skin of the rope, and at the same time serch for unnatural dent in the rope core, try to squeezed lightly while holding.


●Be sure to tie a double figure eigth knot in the end of the rope.(If there is not a knot tied in the end of the rope, can not recognize the rope end when be reached. The end of the rope, can become in the couse of a crash, by slipping through the descender.)

●Carefully put the rope sequentially in the bag to not tangled.

●If find a damaged portion cut it immediatly on the spot.(If the rope left uncut, can be eventually used in that dangerous state.)


●Change the length of the rope bag cord acording to the wall or work situation.

●Attach the rope bag to the lower side of the main attachment carabiner.

●In a free hanging, or if there is not a posibility to occur falling rocks the rope bag can be to the main rope under the feets and will not obtruct the operations.

●In a falling rocks area, in order to not let the rope bag cause a falling rocks, connect the bag directly to the main attachment carabiner.

Efficient rope check

①Place a carabiner in a high position what can be reached to the hand, then pass the rope through the carabiner while check it and foldit in to the bag.
Fix the rope bag in a height about the bottom is barely off the ground.


②If there is not a adecuated place them put a carabiner in the strap of the own helmet and pass the rope through while checked and folded in the bag.

Organization of a second auxiliary rigging gear

Because in this type of activity an appropriate amount of aquipment is necessary and this equipment need to be collectuvely easy to carry and use.
Since the gear rack of the harness are easylly filled, is recomended the use of a rack harness in what can be carryed and organized a large amount of gear.

Thorn the sling to keep it in a short bundled, and also the daisy chain and set in separated carabiner.

If is necessary to set an anchore, the hammer, jumping and the wrench need to be easy reached.
Is convenient to keep the anchore cone in the chalk bag.

Keep the hanger, carabiner and maillon in a set acording to the compatibility.(since the flexible hangers and ring hangers often not need a carabiner, is better to carry in a compatibility set)


2.How to connect to a natural anchor

Mainly The follow places can be cited as a natural anchor. and the method to make an union is diferent for each one.

Connections to the trees

If the tree have a 20cm or more thickness in a height more or less about the breast, to take an anchore as high as possible, and as far as permited by strength.
Use a considerable length of the rope and unite to the tree by an ink knot, and then use the rest of the end extreme of the rope to do an Bowline knot. (Use the Ink knot in combination, considering a possible mistake when tie the knots)


If there is a need to unite the rope in a middle part, use a loop sling or daisy chain to stem in Girth Hitch to connect to the rope through a carabiner.(Take a fulcrum in a high that the tension does not coming down even missing altitude.)

If there is not possible to obtain a strong fulcrum by only one shrub, then multiples shrubs can be tied by a girth hitch.


When there are a middle branch, there is not need to do a girth hitch, a high strenght can be obtained by use the sling in a doubble loop.

Note the angle!

When use a girth hitch, because the tensile part becomes in a higher loss of strenght , need to take special atencion. There are more loss of strenght in the figure of the right than the left.


Connections to the boulder- bedrock

Stably and can be used as a fulcrum if the large projections of the boulder or bedrock, permit it.
Ensure that is not going to slip, in the direction of the load will be attached. If the rope will be united directly then use a bowline knot.

A wide tape sling can be used to make a union with a rock. (Comparing the abrasion points, there are less damages in the fibers of the tape than the rope, when enter in contact whit an edge.)


The follow steatment can also be applied to the stem of a large tree.
When tying an open sling, if there are enough length to wound two or three times to the anchor tying tape knots and then load only after tightening the anchor and there are no more loss of tension.


If there are a cord whit sufficient strength, can make a loop in advance, so the girth hitch can be made in a single cord.


Connections to an structure

Pillars of a buildings, handrails what have enough strength to be used as an anchor.
Like trees and boulders, the rope can be tied with a bowline knot. or make the union with a tape or sling.
Such as steel and concrete, expected to ensure a strenght, there is a method to acquire a fulcrum using a cliffhanger, but these skilled method will be omitted in this document.
During a escape of a fire, jamming narrow portions such a durable furnitures may also be used.

3.Connection and set of a hanger artificial anchor

If there is no natural anchors in the apropriate place to rigging, there is a need to hitting an artificial anchor
Here are an example to an anchor that was drilled in a rock or concrete. and how bind the rope to the hanger.

1.Method to hitting an artificial anchor

Selection for the place of artificial anchor

The articial anchor will be set in a hard rock, like a rock or concrete.
Unconsolidated sand and severed mud weathering rocks, or concrete with advanced degradation, will not be selected because sufficient strength to hold an artificial anchor cant be obtained.
Hit the selected rock with a hammer in various points in order to find the point that have a high metal sound(kinkin).If the hammering sound is not continued(ponpon, bofubofu) need to considerte that part is separated from the base or are peeled an can not be selected as an artificial anchor hit point. Also, confirm the selected point is not surrounded by cracks that will may separate the artificial anchor from the base. If the selected point are surrounded by cracks or pumice, cant be selected as an artificial anchor hit point.

Drilling (manual drilling)

①Attach the drill bit or self-drilling type anchor to the jumping tip, and set it perpendicular to the wall.

②While hitting with the hammer, rotate the jumping in the clockwise direction.
Since at the starting time of drilling the direction is not yet determinated, while take care about the direcction of the jumping, continue to drilling striking carefully in the jumping.

③While drilling, remove the jumping from the hole frequently and blow the debris.
If the debris remaind and accumulate on the hole while drilling although hit the jumping, the debris will obstruct the drill action. Can drill faster by cleaning the anchor point frequently.

④Drill approximately the depth of the anchor.
The necessary depth depend on the anchor type.
The PETZL's SPIT need an depth equal to the archor lenght.
The industrial suitably grip anchore need to protude of the wall about the half of the cone length. The cone in the SPIT expandable anchor is inside the anchor and dont change the needed length.

Drilling (drilling by a hammer drill)

Attachet the drill bit to the hammer drill and place it perpendicular to the wall. Confirm the needed depth and drill. (In advance mark the needed depth in the drill bit with a tape)


①Blow the hole to take aout the debris, and instal the cone in the tip of the anchor.

②Put the anchore in the hole.

③The anchor will be exposed about the half of the cone length.

④If the anchore an the jumping are not loose, try to tighten lightly in the clockwise direction and hit while confirming there are not loose.

⑤Once the anchor can be tighten any more, remove for the jumping, (move the jumping counterclockwise) and complete the anchor set.

Saving the anchor

If the fixed anchor will be uses more than once and need to be left in site. then is necessary to protect the anchor from the plant, weather and sunlight, particulary when are exposed to the salty air, the bottom becomes unusable, and the hanger can not entering if the bolt are rusty.
As a countermeasure, after use a rust inhibitor in the anchore and screw a bolt in order to prevent the corrosion when the anchor will not be used.
Use a bolt to prevent the sand to enter at the bottom of the anchor and also to facilitate the recognize the anchor place.

2.the selection of the hanger

Hanger use Example 1

Hanger use Example 2

Hanger use Example 3

If use a carabiner to connect the hanger, at the time to remove the load of the carabiner, sometimes can be caught in the minor axis direction of the anchorage.
After pass the anchorage hanger check if the carabiner is attachtched correctly.

4.Provisional load test

The fulcrum were the rope will be tied need to be tested to confirm that can withstand the weight of the rigging person.
If there is a natural anchor, try to sling, if there is an artificial anchor, try to ride the body weight by connect and charge the foot loop.

In this case never connect the cowstail or the main rope to the anchor.
If the trees broke, will be suspended only in the artificial anchor, but if you collapse, every rock where are implanted an artificial anchor will be caugth in the collapse adding their weight.

During the temporary load test, even if each pumice near the anchor collapse, the rope user can easyly escape because is not attatched to the anchor.

Say again.
Do the temporary load test before connect the anchor to the own rope or yourself!!
If not broke douring the test then is stably to set the anchor.

5.Anchor system

1.Start to use the rope

In order to descend in a vertical plane, there in advance the need to start using the rope from a gentle slope part, and must enter the pitch head secured by the rope.
Then when use the SRT, must always be secured by various fulcrumes.
To start to use the rope by either, the rigging person or their follower, where the slope is no more secure and there is a danger to sliding down.(physical ability of the rigging person or their follower)
But the temporary load test of the first anchor will be made in a place that can be stoped in good time even if you fall significantly.

Improve the start use the rope!!

In a situation where would entrust the fully body weight to the rope, the fulcrum must be united to two or more points.

And even understanding the anchor maybe overload, attach the anchor only in one point?

Despite there are a posibility that the load is applied to the backup anchor if an slip would overload the rope, if the fulcrum have more than one point then, can act as a support af the backup anchor.(will not load the weight in the main anchor before the secure the two point fulcrum)

If connect the cowstail, then the anchor must have several points.

2.Height of the fulcrum

Take a fulcrum as high as the strength of the fulcrum permit to attach the rope.
This will incress the angle of the main rope and the edge of the slope, is an important technique to reduce the stress on the deviation anchor.

If the anchor is placed in a lower position, the rope route becomes low and is easy to strike any protrusion of the surface.
Furthermore in the case of a deviation the stress in the rope will depend of the angle of the main rope.
As a result, the deviation anchor will take more stress.

Because the the base is expected to offer more resistance than the tree tip, there are a tend to take the fulcrum in the base, but in SRT the fulcrum only takes an static load, and the rope arrangment must not scratch the edge.
In order to do the temporary load test, need to obtain the fulcrum as high as possible.

When keep the anchore in a high position, the route that the rope pass through is also high and is dificult to strike any protrusion.
Further, in the case of make a deviation, the stress in the rope will depend of the angle of the main rope.
As a result, the deviation anchor will take less stress.

3.Anchor system types and applications

When tying the rope support point, always provide two or more fulcrum points (complex fulcrum), it is necessary to tie together.
The method to arrange and unite this anchor is basicaly divided in two backup anchor system.
Mainly by the need of positional relations and the load direction between the fulcrums, and select the better choice to build.
Actually, often combined both to correspond to the complex of the topography.

Backup anchor system

If there is a rock in an angle that can not be avoided during the construction af the backup anchor and main anchor (an edge) and, when you want to load just below the main anchor, is wise to use this system. Always charge the 100% af the load in the main anchor, dont load in the backup anchor.
The load will be applied in the backip anchor when the main anchor fails.

Backup anchor system schematic diagram

Note! Backup anchor system

There are a few point to take care when construct a backup system.

1.Slack, the upper and lower rope slack

①To minimize the rope slack between the main and backup anchor (slack)
②Ensure the backup anchor is higher than the main anchor. If the main anchor is higher than the backup, the position of the main anchor can be lowered by using an auxiliary sling. (Or lower the knot locations to the backup anchor level using a long loop double figure eight knots)

Backup anchor system schematic diagram

2.Placed on a vertical plane

An orizontal displacement or acceptable to extent what varies depending on the state of the edge may scratch the rope if the main anchor fail.
If there is an sharp edge between the main and the backup anchor, when the tension change to the backup anchor along with the impact when a main anchor fail, the rope is likely be cutting by the edge.
If the main and the backup anchor are horizontaly greatly separated, there is a high risk for the rope to be cutting by rubbing a large distance when the main anchor fail.

Therefore, it is possible to place the main and backup anchor to rigging without creartineg an horizontal displacement.
Acomplex will be constructed by combining the sling and a shared anchor. (8-5-7 introduced in the complex anchor system)

As a figure below shown , it is allowed to passthrough the rubbing part in the sling, building the main anchor and a Y belay after the edge.
Doing so, it is possible to reduce the abrasion distance in the rope if the main anchor fail.

Shared anchor system

A system which the applied load will be dispersed in a various anchors. Also called Y belay because present a Y-shape.

Shared anchor system schematic diagram

There are two styles of Y belay, divided by tha diference in the separation, a Y belay with a fixed ratio of the load distribution, rope and sling and the liquidity variance of the Y belay always show the same ratio of a load flow.

1.Independent variance of the Y belay

The Y belay arm length are fixed independently to the type of the distribution ratio of the load.
In order to reduce the consumption of the rope, one arme can be made by a sling and the arms will complement the other in the case of one of them broke.
Because generally in SRT there is a need to distribute the load evenly, Unless there is an special reason, is better to use a separate variant of Y belay.

In a Y belay ssystem connected to the anchor by a rabbit knot and a Thorn sling overhand knot.
Because of the knot in use is only one, take care to not do a mistake, because if the knot fail....


If the space between the anchor is short, there is a method for bundling with a rabbit knot and a boleyn on a byte so the knot does not become a single knot, should be used in combination for backup.


After install the backup anchor, the manner in what the rope is binding to the manin anchor by an alpine butterfly is called classical Y belay.

2.Variance and liquidity of the Y belay

By connect various anchors to a movable rope and sling, there is a method of distibution to always load the anchor evenly.
For production, you can use a thorn sling(loop sling), this is a method for irregular use of the rabbit knot and a boleyn.
Make a sling in which the current portion is previously twisted between the anchor once, to prevent omit support if the anchor drop.
The downgard direcction will change in the distribution flow of the load and will be automatically balanced.

Explain the variance and liquidity of the Y belay using a thorn sling.


Explain the variance and liquidity of the Y belay using a Rabbit knot.


If a portion of the composite fulcrum is broke will interrupt the flow dispersion, and the consuption of the rope is great, or the sling is often fail. 
As a countermeasure will not be used alone, should be used in combination for a backup.


4.Opening angle of the Y belay (load distribution system)

1.The Load balancing is evenly independently dispersed in the Y belay

Regardless of the flow - independent, if th Y belay have a large opening angle (α) is grater between the anchore, and the load applied to the anchor becomes large.
The Flow distribution and in the acse of the independent variance to open in a isometric opening angle of Y belay is more than 120 °, more than the body weight of the rope user is applied to the anchor.

Ybelay of opening angle and load relationship to the anchor (If both arms of te Y belay are opening isometrically)

2.The load distribution is unequal independent variance of the Y belay

The load distribution is unequal independent variance Y for belay, the Y opening angle of the belay is more than 90 ° when the body weight of the user is loaded, then more that the user weight will be applied to the anchor.

The relation of the dispersion angle and the distribution af the load, in the independent variance Y belay.

In the independence variant of the Y belay, if the decent direction is changed in the middle of the fall, the variance ratio of the Y belay is likely to change. Therefore the independent variance of the Y belay opening angle should be within 90 °.
Then, in order to distribute the load in both anchors, to predict in advance a down range, the construction of the Y belay must be in a range within an angle of extension of the Y belay arms.
The conditions at the time of construct an independent variant Y belay are two.
○ The opening angle between the Y belay is 90 ° 
○ The lowering activity range is within the angle formed by the diagonal arms of the Y belay ?

5.The selection of the anchor system

● make a temporary load test to the fulcrum to ensure the resistance every time create a fulcrum.
● Firstly select the anchor hazardous locations, and performs a preliminary load test. (when construct a backup anchor, even starting in a safe place do a temporary load test to avoid any fall in case of the anchor fails)
● Install the backup anchor.
● Approaching to an area where is possible to construct an anchor while taking secure by descenders (do not completly load the body weight to the rope before construct the main anchor) to install the main anchor.
In this case, if the rope between the main and the backup anchor is rubbing an edge, use the backuo anchoring system to remove the tension from the scraping point.
If there is no edge or abrasion point between the main and the backup anchor, a shared anchor system can be constructed.

6.Two points rule when rigging

If the fulcrum fail( breaking trees or loss of the artificial anchor) or some auxuliary gear (carabiner, sling, tape, hanger, anchor, etc.) if one are broke or make a mistake tying a knot ( a cut in a main rope is an exeption)
A simple mistake, or a broken gear would crash the entire rope.
Providing a two point rule for self safe when rigging and even when the rigging pass.
Never concentrate the entire rigging safety in only one place, is better to divide the risk of a fail of the fulcrum, an erroneously tied knot, or a breakage of an auxiliary gear, in two or more points.
The independent variance of the Y belay most rational and using less equipment is a Classical Y belay.

Classical Y belay schematic diagram

Never concentrate the entire rigging safety in only one place, is better to divide the risk of a fail of the fulcrum, an erroneously tied knot, or a breakage of an auxiliary gear, in two or more points.

Showing models that was broken in one point of the classical Y belay.
Which even one point is broken, there is no possibility that the entire rigging collapses.

Anchor 1 fail situation

Anchor 2 fail situation

The bowline knot has solved situation

Alpine butterfly knot has solved situation

Sling break situation

A carabiner broke situation

A completed anchor system must be apt to perform the following checks.

●Check the fulcrum(trees, rocks, artificial anchor, pillars, etc) are OK?
●The carabiner ar not broken or open?
●The hanger are not broken or have any scratch?
●The sling etc. are not cut?
●There is not mistake with the knots?

Wrong rigging

There is a example of wrong rigging below.
Point the problems or mistakes and answer the improvements measures.

Question ①
Each of the upper and lower trees stem fulcrum are united by a sling.
Build a shared anchor system to convert the fulcrum in a classical Y belay.

Question ②
One of the fulcrum is united by a bowline knot, and there is a deviation to another fulcrum.

Question ③
Each of the two attachment points on the double hole hanger trough the Maillon to unite in a classical Y belay.

Question ④
Bind the rope directly to the two anchor by a Bowline on a Bight.

Question ⑤
Multiples fulcrums are united in a ring shape by a sling tied with a water knot.
Trough a carabiner to the tape sling ring, to bind a double figure eight knot.

Question ⑥
Using a sling and a carabiner to unite the fulcrum to two points. and bind a Y belay in a rabbit knot.

Answer ①
The tree is the only fulcrum. if is broke, or is not a big tree, can not be used to rigg, basically the fulcrum must be taken a plurality of points.

Answer ②
A deviation is only a change of the rope direction, the rope does not unite to the fulcrum, , in this case there is only one fulcrum.
fix the deviation in a alpine butterfly, to make a classical Y belay.

Answer ③
The double hall hanger have two point to attach, but the fulcrum is only one. another fulcrum must be added to construct an anchor system.

Answer ④
Since the fulcrum is secured to two pints, it may be a Y belay to complementing one point of a unity part.
Since may be the same fulcrum in the first point, and bundling an alpine butterfly.

Answer ⑤
Since the fulcrum is secured to two pints, it may be a Y belay to complementing one point of a unity part.
Since may be the same fulcrum in the first point, to build a shared anchor system.


Answer ⑥
Since the fulcrum is secured to two pints, it may be a Y belay to complementing one point of a unity part.
Since may be the same fulcrum in the first point, to build a shared anchor system.
And should be good to add a backup, and is also possible to add an alpine butterfly.


2-points rule for the rope joint

The riggin two point rule also applies to the rope joint.
Even if make a mistake when do a rope joint knot, can be complemented by a double fishermans knot in the extra lenght of the rope.

7.Complex anchor system

If in the previous backup anchor system or shared anchor system, the single rigging is dificult, a complex pitch head need to be builded or combinated with an apropriate anchor system.
An example of an complex anchor system is showed below.

Example 1:
If you want to set a descending line just below the anchor 3, then whern approaching the anchor 3, it is necessary to descend, loading weight on the rope.
(at anchor 1,and 2 shared relationship, anchor 3 and 1, and the anchor 2 in a backup relationship)

Backup anchor system that backs the classical Y belay. Complex example of a shared anchor system and backup anchor system 1

Example 2
There is an edge between te anchor 1 and 2 douring the approach to the main anchor (anchor 3) as a descending line, it is necessary to load the rope.
Even if ther is not an edge between the anchor 2 and 3 ( At anchor 1 and 2 backup relationship, the anchor 2 and 3 shared relationship)

Shared anchor system that was produced in classical Y belay

Example 3:
If there is a need to add more shared anchor in three or more points.
Such as when the tension on the anchor 1 and 2 remain.

Shared anchor system that was constructed in 3-points classical Y belay

Example 4
If continuous backup anchors will be constructed.
If there are not an edge between the anchors 1 and 2 and the anchors 2 and 3.

A continuous backup anchor system

When rigging examples 1-4 are performed in the followed manner.

①First, the descender entrust the weight on the rope anchor system constructed in two points of the anchor 1 and anchor 2, to approach to the anchor 3.

②After doing a provisional load test on anchor 3 , transferred the weight to anchor 3 using the short Cowes tail, and pull out the tension from the main rope.

③Create a knot to connect to the anchor 3 and transfer the wheight to the main rope. mantain the long cowstail, contected to the knot.

④Attach the tsirrup to the anchor 3 and stand, to remove the short cows tail.
⑤Release the long cows tail. Rigging complete.

Should be noted, when making this roggin. the presence or absence of a follower( a person using the same rigging line after the first user) A follower or if someone (if there is a need to lower again to the potencial follower the pitch head will be the anchor 3 In this case, the follower must enter secured by the cows tail. until the anchor 3. (Because there is not slack on the rope, it is not able to attach the device to down on the rope.)
Therefore from the anchor 2 is a pitch head at the time of rigging, in the slope until the anchore 3, which is an steep slope that does not get off without a descender, the anchor 3 was constructed as an intermediate set in re belay or deviation. If there is not follower, regardlles of the slope sitiation from the anchor 2 to anchor 3, the anchor 3 can be the main anchor in a shared anchor system and backup anchor system.

If there is a need to withdrawal, do in the following mannner.

①Once, reach the anchor 3 and remove the chest ascender by connecting the cows tails to the anchor 3.

②Remove the rope from the anchor 3 and solve the knot.

③Push up the hand ascender and attach the chest ascender below the hand ascender.

④Ascend to a high you can safe release the cowstail and remove the anchor 3.

6.Make an intermediate set

During a descend, if the wall dont have any protrude, continue to descend til find a point where the rope may be scraped by a rock angle, find a way to protect the rope from the abrasion (re-belay, deviation, protector) in the case of a natural slope serch for any sloid wood on the line or upward the rock and build the middle set (re-belay, deviation, etc.)


If there is a condition where are a fulcrum to pass the temporary load test on the opposite side of the lowering line in order to avoid the a posible abrasion point.
Fulcrum is an artificial anchor, attach the hanger. In the case of natural anchors connect a sling and tie the main rope through them to the carabiner.

①Once pass to re-belay attach the descend device to the rope and do a hard lock.
②Connect the re-belay carabiner to the re-belay anchor.
③Do a provisional load test.
④Connect the short cows tail to the re-belay point (dont use the re-belay carabiner)
⑤Release the hard lock and transfer the body weight to the short cows tail.
⑥Asure to have enough lenght of the rope not onli to avoid the abrasion point but to attach the descender device. ( about 1-2 meters) the rig use relative a short lenght of the rope, but other devices like the stop use more.
⑦Make a double figure eight knot immediatly above tthe descending device is connected to the re-belay carbiner.

⑧Connect the long cows tail to the loop of the eight knot.
⑨Do a hard lock in the descender device, remove the short cows tail and transfere the body weight (use the foot loop connected to the re-belay carabiner if there is no scaffolding to rising) to descender.
⑩Release the hard lock, and release the long cows tail when confirm the descender device. The instalation of the re-belay is complete.

If the re-belay point and the wall are close

If the re-belay point and the wall are very close, is valid to wait until the last minute to do a re-belay on the oposite side wall.

If the re-belay point and the wall are very close do a re-belay placing the rope on the wall oposite to the edge

In the case of a deviation and Y belay, the rope close to the wall side with enough lenght of the rope to avoid the abrasion point


In a situation where the fulcrum to do a temporary load test is on the other side of the rope abrasion point. Bind the fulcrum with sling in a apropriate lenght and attach the hanger in the case of arificial anchor, inthe case of a natural anchor, unity by sling ( daisy chain, tape, slings, shuch a rope sling) directly to the anchor carabiner. This is the way to avoid scratches and abrasion areas.

①In the same height as the deviation anchor stop the descend and do a hard lock. ②Bind the deviation anchor sling.
(if the anchor is an artificial anchor will be connected to the sling in the matching hanger mounting direction, if is a natural anchor tiying directly to the sling)
③Attach the carabiner to the apropriate position.
④Close the body as much as possible to the deviation anchor side, pass the deviation carabiner to the main rope just above the descender.

In this case adjust the lenght of the deviation sling to form an 120 ° or more with the rope.
(Like the figure below the broken angle of the main rope as a deviation stress increase if the deviation anchor is small, if becomes smaller than 120 °, the stress on the anchor exeeds the weight of the riggin person.)

If the broken angle of the rope is very close to 180 ° the load is not completle applied to the deviation fulcrum, and is not necessary to do a temporary load test, but a large experience is needed to identify. (if you use a natural anchor such a thin tree, must be skilled in order to judge the way to use.)
In the case of beginner user shuld do a temporay load test to the deviation anchor.


・The break angle of the main rope is α.
・The angle obtained by substract α from β.
・The direcction of the deviation always flow in the bisector angle direction of the main rope angle.
・If the weight of the climber is W
・Divide the load applied to the deviation anchor.
・The relationship of the load applied to the main rope amchor is always W.
A relation between the main rope angle and the deviation anchor load.

About the main rope break (α)
The load appied to the deviation
(if the weight of the climber is set to 1)
The load applied to the main rope anchor
(if the weight of the cilmber is set to 1)


If a possible abrasion on the rope can not be avoided, even with a deviation or re-belay, the next best thing to use is a protector.
However the protetor is displaced easyly and should not be considered to be a permanent stable rigging.
Is only a temporary protection and positioning in the abrasion points, or pull out the tension from a scratch place, do a re-belay as early as possible , in a deviation, should float the abrasion points from the edge.
The instalation of the protector is mainly in the following way.

If the scraping place is just below the fixed point( pitch head, re-belay, etc.)

Very close or lower than the fixed point

①An auxiliary sling to adjust the distance of the abrasion point and the place the protector will be fixed.
②Install the protector to the main rope.

If the scraping point is in the middle of the descend, and away from the fixed point.(retaining protector method)

If the rubbing part is a fixed point above the peripheral abrading portion, in the middle of the descend.(retaining protector method)

①Attach a sling in a point abobe the protector need to be installed and acught the main rope with a carabiner, to install the protector in the main rope.
②In that time is better to place the protector between the rope and the edge befor load the rope whit the body weight.
③Since the protector is often displaced by the expansion and contraction of the rope, fix independently of the rope to keep the rope move freely inside the protector.

If the scraping area is in the middle of the descend and away from a fixed point. (on rope protector method)

If there is no fixed point around the rubbing part or the abraded part is in the middle of the descend. (on rope protector method)

①Made a loop sling with a 3mm cord and unite to the main rope by a prusick knot, and link to the protector by a carabiner.
②Adjust the position of the protector to cover the abrasion point.



There is a acratch place in the middle, this is a protector instalation method when there is not fixed point around.
Fixed to the rope by a prusick.
Link the protector and the prusick cord by a carabiner.

At first glance this method seems very convenient, because the protector can be instaled in any part of the rope. But because the protector shift when the rope loss tension, it is a highly risky way.
On rope protector can shift in the following way.

①During the descend the rpotector is instaled in the abrasion point wen the rope is in a tension state.

②When the goal is reached or a re-belay is installed, the rope loss tension and the protector is pulled up by the contraction of the rope, because the prusick knot is bitten the rope.

③When ascend in this state, it is possible apply tension from the bottom of the rope.
Because the protector was installed in a tensioned rope, when the rope loss tension the protector was pulled up and got far from the abrasion point, the protector will not return to the inisial installation place and the rope will enter in contact with the scraping edge.

Can remain ascending in this state?

There are two points to use the on rope protector method safely.

Pattern 1 Do not remove the tension from the rope!

●In order to mantain the installation place, do not remove the tension from the rope.
●Should not install a re-belay, even if there is an small stage or gently inclined portion, because the weight can should be moved by the foot.
●Also can be done when the vertical porsion can not be reached at the flat surface of the pitch bottom.
●Keep the rope loaded, if there is a need to ascend, switch to ascend from the lower part of the rope.
●If the tension was pulled by mistake, must be considerate to be in a no protector state.
●Depending of the protector and the lower flat surface positional relationship, in general can lowered to the bottom flat surface, walking around and climb again an the protector should come down with the rope again. Switch to ascend without landing.

Pattern 2 Use a protector longer than the contraction length of the rope

●If there is a need to disconnect the load from the rope after install the protector is necessary to use a protector with the lenght corresponding to the contraction lenght of the rope when remove the load.
●Even at remove the load still remain enought lenght of the protector to cover the rope in the edge when the protector is pulled up and down by the rope load to avoid the abrasion.

●Length (L) m is the average of the contraction of the rope. the growth rate of the rope (Z)% and the lenght of the protector initial binding position can be obtained by the following equation.

●Should be noted that the growth rate of the rope was divided by the length of the rope extends when is multiplied by the weight, and the lenght of the rope at no load.
● Because a multiples variants depending on the nature of the rope, the rope access user weight hanging, it is necessary to investigate in advance the own rope.
(By rigging vertically a number of meter, and measure the change in the lenght to try the apply a weight.)

The resultant data can be used as reference.

● Note: growth rate of each rope are published in the manufacturer catalog at the elongation of 50kg--150kg load, at this time the rope user body weight is 0kg.
● Therefore, the growth rate descirbed in the catalog can not be adapted.

Diameter (mm)
Growth rate ( % )

The length from the nearest binding point to the protector binding position, will be reading at the approximate values by eye in the field, but can be accuratly measured at the distance by a Non-prism.


In this way, the contraction lenght of the rope in to remove load time is estimated.

Reference information

Shows the length of the rope contraction when divide the load at typical values.
This is of course equal to the increases displacement in the rope on the protector.
Then, can considerate the required lenght protector.

If there are more than one abrasion place

If the scrapping place in the edge is only one, you can set a protector with a lenght equal to the displacement increases lenght of the rope.

In case there are more than one rubbing place on the edge, the required lenght of the protector and also, the lenght of the rope used in the deviation to make the total edge from the bottom to the top edge.

4.Bolt traverse

Once start use the rope in a traverse line, as well when start use a common rope in rope access, two or more fulcrum points will be builded. At the beginning of the traverse line, if there are a re-belay in the middle, the starting point of the traverse line can be one fulcrum point.

①Leave the short cows tail connected to the anchor carabiner.
②Connect the long cows tail in the loop of the double figure eight knot of which was connected to the carabiner.
③In a hanging in the short cows tail state , in a traveling direction range can be reached, install a new fulcrum.
The distance can incress by using the stirrup to mantain the body horizontaly, or by swing.
Especially effective when when there is an anchor installed in advance.
④Connect the main rope to the new fulcrum carabiner with a double figure eight knot. In this time minimize the slack of the Main rope.

⑤Connect the long cows tail to the new double figure eight knot.
⑥Connect a stirrup in the first anchor carabiner and in the next anchor carabiner respectively and stand up by put the feet on each one.
⑦Load the body weight in the first stirrup and remove the short cows tail.
⑧Transfer the body weight to the nex anchor and connect the short cows tail to the next anchor carabiner.
⑨Repeat from 5-8.


If the final point of the traverse line is also the end of the rope, two or more fulcrums need to be installed. in the final anchor.

4.Pendulum traverse

From the nearest supporting point or nearest deviation between SRT user and the next step point. If there is no rubbing edge and the rope can move laterally by a pendulum move using the own weight. Only by a pendulum operation, can approach significantly to the opposite side and is possible get a re-belay or a deviation.

①Make sure there is no abrasion point in the edge to perform a pendulum move.

②Cling the hands and feet to the fulcrum of the traverse destination.

③Traverse completed.


If there is a rubbing point between the rope and the edge, must be refraining to do a pendulum traverse.
In a pendulum traverse, if the eddge passed in the traverse direction of the rope, there is a large risk to the rope be cuted by the edge.


If there are slopes when permormed a forced pendulum traverse and a protector was used in the edge of the slopes, there is a posibility that the position of the protector changes bay the motion of the rope and unprotect the rope from the abrasion point.

When a pendulum move was performed on the edge below to the rope protector if not remove the tension from the ropeand not return to the inicial position, ther is a posibility to incress the displacement.

It is necessary to pout enough attention on the protector when do a big pendulum move.

9.Deliging (release - withdrawal)

In a typical rope access climbing and perform a withdrawal by releasing the intermediates sets and auxiliary aquipment while.
Withdrawal the intermediate set always after pass one of the anchors.
When want to use a planted artificial anchor again, to prevent the mud does not flow to the anchor and to make easier to find the anchor again it is preferible to leave the bolt screwed.


①Climb to the pitch head.

②Incress the securing point by using the short cows tail.

③Replace the hand ascender at the top of the main anchor.

④The short cows tail in the top hole of the hand ascender and connect the long cows tail to the bottom hole for two point securing.


⑤After confirmate that you have two securing points and release the chest ascender.

Transfer the weight to the short cows tail in the top hole of the hand ascender will release the chest ascender.

⑥Withdrew the pitch head anchor (main anchor) will return at two point secure hand ascender until reach the the first anchor(cackup anchor).
Since release the main anchor not entrust the weight on the rope.

To release and recober the main anchor.
Until reach the backup anchor, will be in a hand ascender two securing points state.

Not entrust the cowstail!

In the pass 6, after releasing the main anchor rope, the lenght of the rope between the backup anchor and the main anchor is not a secure line. Become in a state in which the lower side is not bundled. therefore, it is not secure to entrust in the cows tail connection.

2.Recovery of the rope

Mainly there are two methods to withdrawal the main rope.

● If from the pitch bottom a short amount of the rope remains (the flat part of the rock in which the rope ends) and if there are not protrudes in which the rope can be trapped ( such as twigs or shrubs) the rope can be elevated from the pitch head. This is very effortless.
● If there are too much amount of the rope in the pitch bottom, or there are a protrudes in which the rope can be caught (such twigs or shrubs) around, climb and at the same time withdrawing the rope.

How to raise the rope

●Spread the remain of the rope, in order to not be tangled in the pitch bottom.
●At this time, solve all the intermediates knots including the double figure eight knot in the end of the rope. and climb when the rope have not intermediate knots.
●Once climb at the pitch head an after collect all the auxiliary equipment. pull up the main rope.
●If the rope is too eavy, use a pulley in a higher position, if still heavy take a self belay and it is possible to use the chest ascender to put some weight on the rope.

After climb end, recover the rope by pulling up from the pitch top.

How to withdrawal while climb

①Connect the rope bag with an ink knot and a small pulley cam to the end of the main rope, to fix in the rope bag.

②Climb to an appropriate distance.

③With the rope bag attached pull the rope.

④With the main rope in the climb position, attach the rope bag. Put the excess of the rope ( time in time) in the rope bag.

⑤Repeat shile climb and climb up to the pitch head.

Connection in the ink knots


Connection of a micro traction


10.Retrire of the rope in the downward

To lowered without leaving equipment, take a fulcrum in a a natural anchor and use a rope in a double.
To descend without leaving equipment it is basically to not make an intermediate set. Therefore yhere is a risk to rope scraping. Must have sufficient experience, such a selection of the descend route.

●To select a reliable fulcrum in the pitch head, what will be subjected to use the rope in double. At this time the rope is arranged to be careful as there is no place that or an agle ti cut the rope. (the rope need to be checked later.)
●It is also possible to bind the extreme of the rope to each other, to keep sequentially carried over from the ent to the rope bag.
●Etc. in a free hanging like, it is possible to rope to be tangled, it may have been a hanging rope.

①Set the ATC in the short cows tail. In this case if there are an scaffolding to take a self bealy in advance, the better.

②In the breaking side of the rope wing an auxiliary sling with the prusik knot. At the end connnect the main attachment. (is convenient to use a shunt)

③To create an anchor for a self belay take a self belay whit the long cows tail in the pitch head.

④Sit back and transfer the weight to the ATC.

⑤Remove the long cows tail to recover the self belay anchor. then continue to descend slowly.

●If is not posible to get off in one pitch, look for a new fulcrum on the rock wall and repeat the procedure from the beginning.
●If the rope is heavy and it is hard to take a new self belay, put the rope in hte chest ascender and pull it up.
●And if it is know in advance the need to descend in a double rope, is advisable to carry a shunt.

11.Escape, when the equipment is lost

During the use of rope access, the lost of the equipment such the hand ascender or the lowering device represent a posibility yo fall,, but can escape from the rope using a sustitute.

1.If the hand ascender is lost

①Make a large double figure eight knot at the extreme of the preliminary cord.


②Make a prusik knot in the loop connected to the main rope .


③Like the hand ascender connect the long cows tail in the prusik. with the extra part of the cord, make a foot loop. todeterminat the lenght, make a double figure eight knot.


④Tie a breaks hitch to make the loop adjustable.


2.If the descender is lost

The ATC can be used if there are one to use. (see the chapter 10)
If there is not spare descender device. there are the following ways.

Descend by italian hitch

●Make an italian hitch in the main rope, and connect to the short cows tail carabiner.
●Connect an auxiliari sling to the breaking side of the rope by a prusik and link to the main atachment.
●However because the damage to the rope is significant after the descend, is recomendable to avoid this method as much as possible.


Get off by a blakes hitch

●Folgin the main rope in a carabiner that was connected to the main harness, and cult to the shoulder.
●In this case the shoulder can be injured bay the rope use this method if are wearing thick clothes.


●In addition, because the resulting braking is poor, it is necessary to force the brake.
●Strong grab the braking side of the rope to incress the braking force.
●In this case, an auto lock funcion is connected to the fulcrum side of the rope breaks hitch.
●When the prusik connected to the fulcrum side of the rope can be released because the weight, use the breaks hitch.

Fulcrum side of the rope
Braking side of the rope
Blakes hitch
The additional braking wound
Italian hitch

12.Risk to expect and measures

When attacked by wasp !


Get off fast by opening the brake of the descender.!




2.Item list

3.About the equipment cases

1.Example of equipment for rock investigation

Use a sit harness suitable for a rope climbing. Also use a sit harness for rock climbing if are concerned of the weight.
Use spiked shoes in a steep slope.


To protect the ayes from unexpectedly fall of small rocks and debris or to avoid poke the eye with the tree branches. use those to not have distortion due the angle and colorless.


Ruler for take measuring to the slope (angle) Can measure gradient just shed slant measured surface. Lightweight and easy to carry for the gradient measurement.

3.Clinofibrate compass

Improved of the top model Silva compass. Equipped with a level compass the inclination can be instantaneously measured by the oil dumping adoption.
Avaiable for purchase at:

4.Estwing hammer

Estwings hammer. An geologist favorite around the world but expensive. For Rock and geological investigation and to bounce small piece of rock.

5.Tape measure

A glass fiber tape excellent in insulation and chemical resistance, can be used in adverse condition such as rubbing with rocks, in mud or rain.


Tree roots and vegetation that grows in danger places. Some types have a grip to prevent the saw fall from the sheath. Fix to the leg with a tape to make it easy to remove and use.

7.Spiked tabi

In rock investigation, to use in slope and places with bad valance, the spiked tabi is excellent for the grip. However keep in mind taht is slippery in a hard rock if are wet.

8.(Common equipment) Red and white pole

Self made pole with a 30cm long rule, and a expansion and contraction range of 2m. need to be shorten enough (50cm) to carry easyly. Inprinted in scale at the time fo photography.
Available for purchase at:

9.(common equipment) Field notebook

A remodeling of a comercially available binder for investigation. Bind paper that can fill out widely in a A3 format, to protect the sketch from the rain and dirt. Use a waterproof paper.
Available for purchase at:

10.(common equipment) Camera

Essential for recording the status of the measured place. because while suspended in the rope it is not possible to take distance from the objective, use a wide angle camera. In addition a fall prevention cord is required (aka: biyonbiyon)

11.(common equipment) Radio

In the field and to interact with the members of the group, because the distance can not allow clearly hear the voice.

2.Example of the structure investigation equipment

Such as slab bottom surface or to the air traverse to accompany a long period of rope work can be a great burden for the body, is recomended to use an fall arrest harness.
Also shoes with spikes would damage the steel parts of the structures such bridges are NG.


To Fix in order to use as an anchor. Carabiner should not be connected directly. use a sling or Daisy chain.

2.Inspection hammer

Used in hammering test on concrete structures. to identify the difference of the sound generated when hit the concrete. No to hit with full power.

3.Percussion bar

Used in percusion test such as exterior wall tiles or FRP Roll the ball attached to the tip in the wall surface to identify the diference in the generated sound.


Thick chalk with a 30mm diameter. Easy to see even from a long distance, is hard to accidentaly erase from the asfalt or concrete. Replace as soon as possible when broke or become short.
Available for purchase at:


Hook type to be used as a provitional fulcrum. When using the flange and always in ortogonal direction to prevent skiding. Important to always mantain a load state.


When a load is applied, can absorb the shock of a crash by an special seam split. Particularly useful in situations when the fall factor exceeds 1.

7.Rubber soled shoes

In the structure investigation, work a lot in steel or concrete, and the shoes with rubber sole have an excellent grip without damage the structure.

8.(Common equipment) Headlight

With a wide range to overlook clearly, use those with a high wide light intensity beam installed. Under the digit investigationindispensable when the sunny day is poor. Convenient to carry when the work exceed the sunset time.

9.(Common equipment) Crack scale

Used to measure the aperture width and size of the cracks. Imprinted in a scale for the time of photography. Used to measure cracks smaller than 0.3mm (air cracks) to larger than 0.1.
Available for purchase at:

10.(Common equipment) Small pouch

To put different stuffs suhc a spare batteries, spare pen, pink tape, vinyl tape, and those usefull in an emergency, such poison remover.

11.(Common equipment) Convex

Used to measurement a single distance. So that the numbers are easy to read, those of the right base scale are recomended.

4.Difference of single rope and parallel rope

5.Deliverables collection

1.Rock investigation

Following in the web
Keystone Deliverables Studies case click


3.Slope investigation situation

Author Seki Osamu

Graduate from the Major school of geology Science of Kochi University.
Enthusiasm for caving while in the school in the academic exploration part.
The research and experience in single rope techniques was popular in Europe in Caving activitiesof approximately 10 years.
1999 (stock) joined keystone.
Introduce a rope access technique based in the single rope technique used in rock investigation.
Then over a period of 15 years at the forefront of rock investigation.
make usable the rope access techniques in the actual research worck, to develop and establish it as an industrial rope access techniques not for sport.
Aiming to spread the rope access than was in 2013, founded the Rope Tech japan.
Born in Ako, kodakusan in 1971.

Rope access manual
Standard ed.

May 1, 2014 first edition first copy issued
May 15, 2014 first edition second printings issue
June 1 augmented corrected version first copy 2014 issue
Author Organization ( Seki ) switch ( Osamu )
Toyota Nakatani Osamu
Publishing office
Rope access Association
〒 617-0856
Kyoto Prefecture Nagaokakyo Shi-kin~keHara Kitaura 27
Hayahara Yoshiro
Edit · DTP Rope access Association
Nakai Ryo
Hosugi Masaaki
Ito Tokumitsu


京都府長岡京市金ヶ原北裏27 Tel: 075-959-9095 Fax: 075-959-9096